The display of Jockey shorts in the window of Marshall Field’s department store in Chicago on 19 January 1935 revolutionized the men’s underwear market. Over the following three months, thirty thousand were sold, and Jockey began “Changing the Underwear Habits of the Nation.” The Jockey short’s Y-front with overlapping fly was patented by Coopers Inc. in 1934. Unlike other underwear of the women suit time, it provided men with “masculine support,” then only available by wearing an athletic supporter or jockstrap. In order to reinforce the idea that this new underwear would provide support, it was discreetly called the Jockey (JOCK-ey). Advertising played a key role in the awareness and massive sales of jockey shorts, and an underwear-clad Jockey statue was used both in window displays and stores. The success of the Jockey short and its massive brand recognition led the company to change its name from Coopers Inc. to Jockey. Until the advent of Jockey Y-fronts in 1934, men’s underwear consisted of loose shirts, singlets, long johns, and drawers that revealed little of the body’s form. Yfronts were revolutionary in that, owing to the way the fly was angled for modesty when urinating in public, the seams drew attention to the male genitals. Jockey shorts, however, were not the first revolutionary underwear idea that the company had introduced. In 1910, S. T. Coopers and Sons, as the company was then known, developed one of the first closed-crotch union suits. The “Kenosha Klosed Krotch” had a seat design of two pieces of fabric that overlapped in an X to allow access for hygenic purposes and it required no buttons or ties. This new underwear made history in 1911 after the oil paintings of men in their Kenosha Klosed Krotches by Saturday Evening Post artist J. C. Leyendecker became the first national print advertisements for men’s underwear. Brief-style underwear quickly caught on, and many other underwear cable knit sweaters manufacturers began to produce their version of the jockey short. Traditionally these shorts had been made of white cotton, but variety was introduced in the 1950s when manufacturers began to experiment with new man-made fibers such as rayon, Dacron, and Du Pont nylon. However, it was not until after the menswear revolution of the 1960s, spearheaded by the boutiques in London’s Carnaby Street, that colored and patterned briefs and Y-fronts became popular. The increasing popularity of tight trousers in men’s fashion led to an increased demand for brief underwear that did not wrinkle under trousers. Skimpier brightly colored briefs began to be produced by the major underwear companies and were overtly promoted for their erotic connotations. Magazine advertisements of the 1970s marketed underwear as a means of sexualizing the body to attract members of the opposite sex. In 1982, Calvin Klein used an enormous billboard in New York City’s Times Square to advertise his men’s white briefs. It was an overtly sexual image of a perfectly formed muscular man wearing nothing but white underwear. “Klein’s billboard has been credited with heralding a new era in the imagery of men in advertising and with precipitating a new fashion in men’s underwear” (Cole, p. 136). By 2004, major designers had established underwear lines, ranging from thongs to briefs to boxer shorts. Traditional companies like Jockey reacted to the competition by producing new styles and “rebranding,” marketing themselves using the now almost-clichéd images of muscular, hairless models in immaculate and revealing white jockey shorts.
Karl Lagerfeld was born on 10 September 1938 to a wealthy family in Hamburg, Germany. He moved to Paris in 1952 and first came to the attention of the fashion world two years later when he won a competition prize for his design of a woolen coat. In 1954 he was hired as a design assistant by Pierre Balmain, one of the premier couture houses of the early postwar period. In 1958 he parted ways with Balmain and became art director at the House of Patou, where he remained until 1962. For most of the next fifteen years he designed for a number of companies and ripped jeans under a variety of contractual and freelance agreements. He was associated especially with Chlo?(1963–1983), where he created styles that simultaneously were elegant and focused on the young. Many of his most striking designs for Chlo?had an art deco flavor, being very streamlined and body conscious. He also utilized prints to excellent effect. At the same time, he worked as a freelance designer for Krizia, Valentino, Ballantyne, and other companies. Beginning in 1965 he designed furs for Fendi. His ability to design simultaneously for several different houses has been a defining characteristic of his career; Lagerfeld became known as a man who was never content to do just one thing at a time. In 1975 Lagerfeld formed his own company and in 1983 became artistic director of the House of Chanel. While continuing his responsibilities at Chanel and at Fendi, he formed Karl Lagerfeld S.A. and KL to market his own ready-to-wear lines. Karl Lagerfeld S.A. was acquired by Dunhill (the parent company of Chlo? in 1992, and Lagerfeld returned to Chlo?at that time and held the post of bras push up chief designer until 1997, when he was replaced by Stella McCartney. When he left Chlo? he regained control of the company bearing his own name; in the early 2000s Lagerfeld was designing for Karl Lagerfeld/KL, Chanel, and Fendi. He has also designed costumes for many films and theatrical productions. Lagerfeld probably is most admired for his work at Chanel, where in 1982–1983 he took over responsibility for a company that had become somnolent, if not moribund, and very quickly made it exciting again. Taking the basic vocabulary established by Coco Chanel, he modernized it, introducing new materials, including denim, and exaggerating such details as the “double C” logo. Remarkably, his work for Chanel has remained as vital in the twenty-first century as it was in the mid-1980s. Karl Lagerfeld has had a wide-ranging career in the arts, achieving considerable success as a writer and photographer. Over the years he has produced many fashion photography spreads for his collections at Chanel and for his own labels and has published several books of his photographs. He also is well known as an aesthete and connoisseur of art and antiques. In 2000 he sold part of his antique furniture and art collection at auction for more than $20 million. With his signature silver-white hair and newly slim figure, he is a familiar and iconic presence on the European fashion scene.
The name Levi Strauss is indelibly linked with a quintessential American fashion— blue jeans. The original riveted work pants, called “waist overalls,” were patented by Levi Strauss in 1873 and became staples of quality, durable workingmen’s garments for more than fifty years. In the 1950s blue jeans, particularly Levi Strauss classic riveted “501’s” emerged as fashion statements, anticipating the skyrocketing popularity of denims worldwide in the following decades. The dominance of Levi’s in this fashion phenomena transformed Levi Strauss & Co. from a successful regional company into one of the world’s largest clothing brands, with bras and things $4.1 billion in total sales in 2002. While Levi Strauss & Co. has aligned itself more closely with style and fashion in the twenty-first century, its origins were humble and rooted in the dry goods trade. Its founder, Levi Strauss, was born “Loeb” Strauss in Buttenheim, Bavaria, in 1829, one of seven children of Hirsch Strauss. In 1847, Loeb Strauss emigrated to the United States to join his stepbrothers, Jonas and Louis, owners of a dry-goods business in New York City. Loeb quickly learned the family trade and by 1850 he had changed his name to Levi. The discovery of gold in California and the subsequent Gold Rush of 1849 brought throngs of fortune hunters west in the hopes of striking it rich. In 1853, Levi Strauss headed to San Francisco, too, not to pan for gold, but to establish his own dry-goods business catering to this new workforce. Levi Strauss set up his wholesale business selling bolts of cloth, linens, and clothing at 90 Sacramento Street, close to the waterfront for convenient access to goods coming off ships. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, his enterprise, known merely as “Levi Strauss,” profited, and its steady expansion forced him to relocate several times to other waterfront addresses. In 1863 his brother-in-law, David Stern, joined his firm, and the company was officially renamed Levi Strauss & Co. By this time, Levi Strauss was in his thirties and the firm was a profitable free pants entity providing a variety of goods. The next decade, however, would assure Levi Strauss his place in fashion history. In 1872, Levi Strauss was contacted by one of his customers, Jacob Davis, a tailor in Reno, Nevada. Davis had discovered a practical and ingenious way to make work pants stronger by adding metal rivets to the weak points at the pocket corners and the base of the fly. Davis’s rivets proved successful and his new reinforced work pants became popular among his local clients. Fearful that his idea would be copied, Davis wanted to secure a patent, but did not possess the $68 necessary to file for a patent. Instead, he turned to Levi Strauss, a successful wholesale goods purveyor from whom he often purchased fabric, and offered to share the patent if Levi Strauss & Co. would underwrite the expense. Levi Strauss recognized the potential in this endeavor and agreed to share the patent. In 1873, Davis and Strauss received patent #139,121 from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings.” The riveted “waist overalls” (as work pants were then known) quickly achieved a reputation for strength, quality, and durability among working men. For twenty years Levis Strauss & Co. held the patent on riveted waist overalls, thereby curbing competition from other manufacturers. In 1890 the lot number 501 (which it would thereafter retain) was first used to designate the riveted waist overall. The following year, the patent expired and went into the public domain, where riveted waist overalls were quickly copied by other firms. However, the demand for Levi’s waist overalls continued to grow, forcing Levi Strauss & Co. to open several manufacturing plants of its own in San Francisco. By the turn of the century, Levi Strauss was in his early seventies and highly regarded as a successful businessman and philanthropist. He died in September 1902, a lifelong bachelor, leaving the bulk of his $6 million estate to relatives and to his favorite charities. With his four nephews running the company, Levi Strauss & Co. continued to thrive and became one of the leading companies producing work pants in the 1920s. The company’s market, however, was still restricted to predominantly western states and to the niche of work clothing. In the 1930s and 1940s, Levi Strauss & Co.’s sphere of influence got a boost from Hollywood through western movies. Popular westerns mythologized cowboys and cowboy dress, including the waist overalls. It was during this period that denims became associated with the ideals of honesty, integrity, and rugged American individualism. After World War II, Americans enjoyed a level of prosperity marked by greater leisure time. Denims, including Levi’s, began to lose their connection with manual labor and emerged as appropriate casual dress. Pivotal to the acceptance of denims was their adoption by teenagers, an increasingly vocal and important market group. When the actor James Dean wore blue jeans in the film Rebel Without a Cause, denims attained a completely new status as cool fashion. By this time, the term “waist overalls” was no longer used; denims were known as jean pants or simply as “Levi’s.” In the 1960s denims continued their evolution as acceptable leisure wear. As a result, denim producers such as Levi Strauss & Co. and Lee (another former workingpant manufacturer) continued to expand. The 1960s was an important decade for fashion—one which witnessed challenges to the traditional haute couture system and the rising popularity of more democratic, street-inspired fashions. Denims emerged as a symbol of individualism and anti-establishment fashion, much to the benefit of Levi Strauss and its competitors. During the height of the hippie era, Levi Strauss & Co. even sponsored a competition to promote the personalized decoration of Levi’s jeans. Founder Levi Strauss could never have foreseen the meteoric rise of Levi Strauss & Co. in subsequent decades. As tastes changed in the 1970s, denims were transformed from leisure wear to high fashion at the hands of designers such as Calvin Klein. Denims now became acceptable dress for all occasions. In the 1970s and the 1980s, Levi Strauss & Co. dominated the market for blue jeans, which became a de facto uniform for youth in America and abroad. Demand for American Levi’s in Europe and around the globe was widespread. In Eastern block countries American Levi’s jeans even attained the status of black-market cash in the early 1980s. The importance of the Levi Strauss brand name in the denim market has been enormous. Through clever marketing and hip advertisements, Levi’s capitalized on the revival in popularity of the “classic” 501 button-fly jeans in the mid 1980s. By 1990, Levi Strauss & Co. was an international manufacturer with a global market, selling under the brands Levi’s, Dockers, and Slates. Only in the late 1990s and early years of the twenty-first century has Levi Strauss & Co. seen a slight reversal of fortune. Changes in taste, from traditional blue to other colors and the revival of retro-1970s flared leg and baggy, hip-hop silhouettes has worked against Levi’s classic-cut jeans in favor of trendy styles marketed by new competitors such as Tommy Hilfiger and Guess. Since the 1990s, Levi Strauss & Co. has been forced to restructure its company to remain competitive. Ironically, Levi’s “classic” denims are no longer manufactured in the United States, the production having been entirely shifted to overseas manufacturers with cheaper labor. Despite competition from the Gap, Tommy Hilfiger, and Guess jeans, Levi Strauss & Co. remains the standard bearer in the denim world. With roots in the settling of America’s west, Levi Stauss & Co. has come full circle achieving (and retaining) iconic status as the maker of the quintessential American garment, still popular throughout the world.
This particular circumstance may well offer in detail with regard to just how quite a few manner enthusiasts assess looking as a possible task. Browsing is seen some sort of undertaking or even job that has got to possibly be executed, that may be, browsing is usually objective led for the certain piece. The actual doctrine which searching can be a job is due to clash having a typical sell hot pantes viewpoint that browsing need to be a variety of amusement. 37 browsing while celebration mainly meets the actual style alter agents’ view. The next situational outcome is usually characterised when dull. A high level of annoyance occurs, presumably since the purchaser is actually beaten down with want achievement. This situation could impact the evaluation of the shopping experience for both fashion change agents and fashion followers. Fashion change agents may evaluate the shopping experience as boring if retailers become too predictable in both product offerings and formal wear shopping environment. High frustration is then predicted to occur because the shopping experience does not alleviate the onset of boredom and fails to be a satisfying experience. For consumers who approach shopping as a chore or task (e.g. Fashion followers), frustration is likely to accompany shopping when shopping environments are not designed for quickness and convenience37 and the resulting outcome is boredom. Consumers experiencing boredom with a task, such as shopping, will abandon it and dispel the boredom by ‘leaving the field’ (i.e. The store, the mall, the shopping environment) if free to do so11 (p. 238). If bored consumers are constrained to continue shopping (i.e. For some reason, they cannot leave the mall), boredom is likely to intensify, presumably because frustration increases. Outlets for bored consumers such as theatres, game rooms, and food courts may provide a way for them to alleviate some of their frustration.
Hill and perkins’s11 model of boredom appears to offer some insight into the influence of boredom on fashion consumer behaviour. Both the cognitive components (e.g. Internal stimulation) and affective components (e.g. External stimulation, constraint) of boredom differentiated among consumer groups. Differentiating among consumer groups based on a tendency toward experiencing boredom is important given the positive or negative outcomes predicted to result from boredom, for example, pursuit or avoidance of shopping. Shopping may serve as an activity to prevent the onset of boredom or to alleviate boredom. Fashion change agents may be motivated to go shopping for new items because they slacks are cognitively aware that there is nothing more to be explored or discovered with items in their current wardrobe (i.e. Items are no longer affectively stimulating). Alternatively, boredom is probably not a new enthusiasm with regard to vogue admirers to go buying. Style admirers could possibly be content with current items mainly because nothing is they are cognitively conscious of which might be dived around as well as learned with fresh things. One particular concern for stores is to capture this awareness of way fans. One challenge for retailers is to capture the attention of fashion followers. In addition to offering an explanation for how both the cognitive and affective elements of boredom are likely to influence fashion consumers, hill and perkins’s11 model of boredom seems to imply that boredom is triggered by cognitive acknowledgement of a situation followed by an emotional evaluation, the affective element. Three types of situational outcomes recognized in the model are associated with different degrees of emotional investment in the situation. One particular situational end result is actually characterised since interesting. Searching for fresh fashions is definitely task which includes intrinsic awareness for casual dress style change agencies. With regard to style supporters, shopping for intriguing task may require a merchandise type precisely as it pertains to involvement from a preferred task for example sporting activities, reading, or even gonna concerts. Retailers who successfully appeal to these consumers may need to emphasize the activity first and the product second, for example, health clubs that sell an assortment of athletic shoes and exercise wear. However, product assortments must be arranged for ease of shopping, with minimal time spent by the consumer in finding the desired merchandise.37 one assumption to avoid is that fashion followers always find shopping an unsatisfying activity. Focus groups comprised of fashion followers might provide insight into the conditions under which they find shopping satisfying. The second situational outcome is characterized as disliked. A low degree of frustration occurs, presumably because no emotional investment was made.
Manner innovative communicators usually are individuals which not alone are generally one of the first to adopt brand-new fashions nevertheless accept they maliciously affect others’ vogue judgements. Eight manner admirers usually are individuals which do not buy along with use a different clothing style right up until its with its top regarding acclaim. 17 manner admirers tend to be viewed as imitators along with constitute number one group of trend business casual individuals. Research examining differences among the groups of fashion change agents supports the use of fashion products and shopping as cognitively interesting and affectively stimulating. For example, fashion innovators showed more strength of feeling about clothing and were more involved with clothing than noninnovators. 16 purchasing involvement of fashion change agents was specific to shopping for fashion products as opposed to shopping for other products.17 fashion innovators were more likely to wear clothing for a shorter period of time and to dispose of clothing for fashionability and conformity reasons than non-innovators.18 innovative communicators were more knowledgeable about clothing styles and brands, spent more on clothing, and owned more different styles of clothing than the hooded sweater other fashion consumer groups.19 trend alter realtors used apparel that will convey personality,,ended up thinking about way,,highly needed for keeping up by using way traits, high within way in addition to dullness • d. M. Studak along with J. Age. Contractor global record connected with personal research,,,thinking about receiving, pp– © blackwell establishing ltd style knowledge, along with higher around acknowledgement or perhaps acceptance with visual way stimuli. They will paid attention to various sources associated with fashion data, specifically style periodicals. Loyal connected with way catalogues had been located that they are based on way recognition.
There are numerous limits within generalizing final results. This study looked at fashion consumer behaviour of emerging adults by surveying students at two universities located in the Midwestern United States. the actual social circumstance involving college living is actually peerintensive in that way providing a strong ecosystem in which peer vogue norms hold the electrical power in order to jacket leather influence buyer habits. However, future research may need to use a more general population including age, education and geographic distributions to enhance generalizability. Based on this study, there is some possible further research. very first, consumers who're wary of excellent as well as become more thinking about achievement perspective will buy high-priced devices (Netemeyer et 's.,1995) as well as will include price-based esteem understanding and also to fear along with garments (Chang et 's.,2008). on top of that, vanity is very much a more prevalent determination to get shoppers around extravagance real estate markets as well as fragrances and also ‘haute couture’ (Grilo et al.,2001). Thus, it would be very interesting to investigate the relationship between vanity and brand sensitivity, vanity and luxury brands and/or vanity and counterfeit brand consumption. Second, it would be also interesting to explore which variables are strong determinants for vanity using path analysis or bolero structural equation modelling. Third, consumers in eastern cultures are more likely to be concerned about both physical appearance and achievement than those in western cultures (Durvasula and Lysonski, 2008) so that it would be interesting to study differences among other countries and consumer groups. lastly, according to collectivism vs. individualism, study may possibly bring on a much better knowledge of precisely how people around civilizations see mirror in another way to.