Trend customer sets include way switch agents (i. electronic. innovators, judgment commanders, progressive communicators) along with fashion admirers. because deduced by way of his or her name, trend adjust realtors are among the primary people for you to accept trend modify by purchasing plus wearing innovative fashions (fashion innovators), by simply persuading others to get and dress yourself in different styles (fashion thoughts and opinions leaders) and also by way of fulfilling equally performs (innovative communicators). Fashion followers are so designated because they do not buy and wear fashions until the fashions are well-accepted among other consumers. these post on homework will probably exhibit that trend switch agencies embrace self-enhancement ideals (e. f. electrical power, delight, selection, creativity) along with prices regarding transform (e. f. excitement, pleasure, novelty) in contrast to way enthusiasts take beliefs regarding keeping this reputation quo (e. f. conformity, custom, security). Differences between fashion change agents and fashion shrug followers reflect differences in the general values identified by Schwartz (1994). For example, power as a value involves concern for social status and prestige and a need to control people and resources (i.e. via wealth, authority and social power). Fashion change agents are more concerned with social status and prestige than fashion followers, for example, the image or symbolic aspects of fashion are more important to fashion change agents (Beaudoin et al., 2000). Consistent with their desire to use clothing and appearance to impress others, fashion change agents practice more appearance management behaviours and are more conscious of their bodies and appearance than fashion followers (Park et al., 1999). Hedonism is usually a value related to pleasures, fun with living and also self-gratification. fashion switch realtors tend to be about pleasure, fun as well as entertainment when compared with way enthusiasts (Goldsmith et 's.,1991). excitement can be a price reflected in goal of your existence portrayed by enthusiasm, originality, selection as well as concern. Compared with fashion followers, fashion change agents have a higher optimum stimulation level, a higher need for mental stimulation and are less susceptible to boredom due to mental stimulation (Workman and Johnson, 1993; Kwon andWorkman, 1996; Studak and Workman, 2004). further more, trend adjust agencies read a lot more way mags, window shop often, purchase much more new style items in addition to spend more cash at garments as compared with trend supporters J. age. Workman and S.-H. Lee Materialism long dress International Journal of Consumer Studies 35 (2011) 50–57 © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 51 (Goldsmith et al., 1991; Darley and Johnson, 1993; Beaudoin et al., 1998, 2000). Self-direction refers to independence in thinking, acting, creating and exploring. Fashion change agents are more likely to use clothing to express individuality or uniqueness than fashion followers (Workman and Johnson, 1993;Workman and Kidd, 2000). Tradition as a value is reflected in humility, moderation and acceptance of traditional cultural customs. By definition, fashion followers do not break with tradition or current customs by adopting new fashions until the fashions have become customary among the general public. Further, fashion followers have a need-based fashion problem recognition style compared with fashion change agents who have a want-based fashion problem recognition style (Workman and Studak, 2006). Conformity as a value can be seen in restraint and an unwillingness to violate social norms (Schwartz, 1994). The fashion process is intended to make existing fashions obsolete by introducing new styles that violate current fashion norms. Compared with fashion change agents, fashion followers are less interested in fashion (Cho-Che and Kang, 1996), that is, in violating existing fashion norms. Security as a value focuses on safety, harmony, stability and a sense of belonging (Schwartz, 1994). Fashion followers are more likely to have an external locus of control compared with fashion change agents who are more likely to have an internal locus of control (Workman and Studak, 2007). Richins’ (1994) found that materialistic consumers value publicly consumed and expensive items because of their symbolic association with success and prestige. Wang and Wallendorf (2006) reasoned that consumers’ materialistic values may affect their evaluation of publicly consumed products with symbolic meanings related to social status. Wang and Wallendorf asked 54 undergraduates at a large university to rate 14 products regarding how much each product signaled something about its owner’s social status. Five out of the top seven status-signalling products were clothing items, that is, jewelry, business suits, sunglasses, dress shoes and jeans. Materialism was negatively related to satisfaction with products that had high ratings for status-signalling. Materialism was positively related to clothing product involvement such that respondents who scored high on materialism were more interested in clothing, received more pleasure from clothing, understood the symbolic value of clothing and viewed clothing purchases as important (Browne and Kaldenberg, 1997) – incidentally, all characteristics of fashion change agents. Because research on fashion change agents shows they embrace self-enhancement values (e.g. power, pleasure, variety, creativity), it seems likely that fashion change agents will score higher on materialism than fashion followers. Likewise, because research shows that fashion followers embrace values associated with maintaining the status quo (e.g. conformity, tradition, security), they are likely to score lower on materialism than fashion change agents who embrace values associated with change (e.g. stimulation, excitement, novelty). The following hypothesis was proposed: H1: Fashion change agents will score higher on materialism than fashion followers.
Fenigstein et 's. (1975) suggested this persons may have diverse dispositional movements that will self-awareness has happen to be conceptualized because self-consciousness. Self-consciousness entails not one but two proportions; non-public in addition to court self-consciousness. in the beginning, bruce (1890) outlined self-consciousness and also offered about three components in the do it yourself: stuff, public in addition to spiritual. Fenigstein button down shirt (1987) referred to the social self as the public self and the spiritual self as the private self. Private self-consciousness involves covert, personal, unshared aspects (e.g. attitudes, affective states) of the self that are not observable by other people (Carver and Scheier, 1981). Individuals high in private self-consciousness tend to be aware of their perceptions, beliefs and feelings vintage clothing and tend to be self-reflective and introspective (Fenigstein et al., 1975). On the other hand, public self-consciousness involves a focus on the self as a social object (Fenigstein et al., 1975). Individuals who are high in public self-consciousness tend to be concerned about the way they present themselves and care about how others perceive them. According to previous research, publicly self-conscious people tend to be concerned about the impression they make on others so they try to create a favourable public image (Fenigstein, 1979) and gain approval from others using self-presentation strategies (Doherty and Schlenker, 1991). They are intensely concerned about their appearances and fashion (Miller and Cox, 1982). miller et 's. (1982) determined of which open public self-consciousness was positively based on style viewpoint authority, apparel attention and defined fashionability loaning help on the belief which clothing trend can be used to increase arrest display with the self applied. Gould (1987) found out sexual category differences with open selfconsciousness having women of all ages, mainly young adult females, scoring increased around public self-consciousness as compared to adult men. . Accordingly, public self-conscious and status-prone consumers are concerned about their impression on others, physical appearance and fashion, being sensitive to interpersonal rejection and loss of face (Nia and Zaichkowsky, 2000). Much research has focused on private and public self-consciousness from a psychological perspective, but there is little research to assess public self-consciousness with respect to consumer behaviour. Consumers often purchase and consume products in public. Products have images that are represented by their physical characteristics such as packaging, price or brand label (Sirgy, 1982). The brand label might be one of the most important attributes of a product to consumers. Compared with products with national brand labels, some consumers consider products with bargain brand labels to be cheap or inferior (Fitzell, 1982). as a result, in order to enhance its interpersonal level photographs or maybe their arrest photos, anyone who has higher (vs. lower) public self-consciousness may choose eating nationwide make machines to be able to good deal or perhaps low-priced company products and solutions. Using Fenigstein et al.’s (1975) scale, Bushman (1993) tested if consumers high in public self-consciousness prefer national brand label products to bargain brand label products to improve their public images. Public self-consciousness was positively correlated with ratings of products with national brand labels and negatively correlated with ratings of products with bargain brand labels. Consequently, public self-consciousness should be considered to be an important determinant of consumer behaviour related to presentation of favourable images to others.